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Kuzma Vladimirov
Kuzma Vladimirov

Principles Of Electronic Materials And Devices

This course is part 1 of a series that explain the basis of the electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of materials including semiconductors, metals, organics, and insulators. You will learn how devices are built to take advantage of these properties. This is illustrated with a wide range of devices, placing a strong emphasis on new and emerging technologies.

Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices

The department also has a program in electronic materials that provides a broad-based background in materials science, with opportunity to specialize in the study of those materials used for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The program incorporates several courses in electrical engineering in addition to those in the materials science curriculum.

The Materials Engineering major at UCLA prepares undergraduate students for employment or advanced studies with industry, the national laboratories, state and federal agencies, and academia. To meet the needs of these constituencies, the objectives of the undergraduate program are to produce graduates who (1) possess a solid foundation in materials science and engineering, with emphasis on the fundamental scientific and engineering principles that govern the microstructure, properties, processing, and performance of all classes of engineering materials, (2) understand materials processes and the application of general natural science and engineering principles to the analysis and design of materials systems of current and/or future importance to society, (3) have strong skills in independent learning, analysis, and problem solving, with special emphasis on design of engineering materials and processes, communication, and an ability to work in teams, and (4) understand and are aware of the broad issues relevant to materials, including professional and ethical responsibilities, impact of materials engineering on society and environment, contemporary issues, and need for lifelong learning.

There are three main areas in the M.S. program: ceramics and ceramic processing, electronic and optical materials, and structural materials. Students may specialize in any one of the three areas, although most students are more interested in a broader education and select a variety of courses. Basically, students select courses that serve their interests best in regard to thesis research and job prospects.

The ceramics and ceramic processing field is designed for students interested in ceramics and glasses, including electronic materials. As in the case of metallurgy, primary and secondary fabrication processes such as vapor deposition, sintering, melt forming, or extrusion strongly influence the microstructure and properties of ceramic components used in structural, electronic, or biological applications. Formal course and research programs emphasize the coupling of processing treatments, microstructure, and properties.

The electronic and optical materials field provides an area of study in the science and technology of electronic materials that includes semiconductors, optical ceramics, and thin films (metal, dielectric, and multilayer) for electronic and optoelectronic applications.

Course offerings emphasize fundamental issues such as solid-state electronic and optical phenomena, bulk and interface thermodynamics and kinetics, and applications that include growth, processing, and characterization techniques. Active research programs address the relationship between microstructure and nanostructure and electronic/optical properties in these materials systems.

The elucidation of physical properties of organic materials is important for further optimization of related electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we review briefly various first-principles computational tools for the modeling of these materials by investigating key structural, electronic, and chemical properties of prototype organic semiconductors. In particular, we discuss the site-selectivity for band formation in pentacene and rubrene, hydrogenation and transformations of metal-free phthalocyanines, and the bonding topology in a hybrid organic-inorganic system.

The Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science offers two Bachelor of Science degree programs, one in chemical engineering and one in materials science and engineering. Students learn to convert low-value raw materials into high-value products. Students learn how to analyze and understand different processes and how, at the macroscopic and molecular levels, these processes result in different properties in the final product. Emphasis is placed on developing students who understand the technical aspects of production, the environmental, economic, and societal impact of engineering, and who possess a desire for lifelong learning and growth. Optional concentrations are available for students to focus their programs of study on areas of particular interest.Graduates are trained to succeed in multidisciplinary teams that interface between disciplines. They work across a broad spectrum of fields including industrial chemicals, automotive, metals, plastics, petroleum processing, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food, electronics, energy related materials, sensors, and biomedical technology. Within these fields, our graduates are involved in research and development of products and processes, in the design and operation of manufacturing facilities, and in management and product quality control.

Chemical engineers convert raw materials to finished products via pathways involving chemical and physical changes. The principles of mass, energy, and momentum conservation, chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and economics are applied to develop new products and to design and operate manufacturing facilities to produce products that benefit society. Chemical engineering principles are, in turn, based on the sciences of chemistry, biology, mathematics, and physics, which form the underlying foundation of the discipline.

Through the core course work, students gain the scientific and engineering foundation needed to design metallic, ceramic, polymeric, and composite materials and, in turn, components manufactured from these materials. Students may enhance the knowledge they gain in metals, ceramics, and polymers by completing a concentration in biomedical materials, manufacturing, polymers, or metallurgy. Students may also choose to enroll in electives of complementary fields such as business, electronic materials or statistics. Honors students are encouraged to request an honors option with the instructors of MSE courses listed in item 3.a. below.

The elucidation of physical properties of organic materials is importantfor further optimization of related electronic and optoelectronicdevices. Here we review briefly various first-principles computational toolsfor the modeling of these materials by investigating key structural,electronic, and chemical properties of prototype organic semiconductors.In particular, we discuss the site-selectivity for band formation in pentaceneand rubrene, hydrogenation and transformations of metal-free phthalocyanines,and the bonding topology in a hybrid organic-inorganic system.

This track focuses on the fundamental material properties of molecular dots, wires, and crystals, quantum confinement and ballistic transport based device structures, and the integration of molecular/electronic materials in nanodevice geometries. It also includes advanced theoretical and computer simulation treatments of nanoscale optical, electronic, elastic, and thermodynamic properties.

Substantial advances have been made in (a) our experimental and theoretical understanding of simple tunnel junctions based on molecules, (b) the role of contacts tunneling and (c) experimental studies of redox-state gated transport. In addition, a new thermally-activated transport process has been discovered in a non-redox active system. Substantial challenges remain. The engineering of molecular contacts to technologically important electronic materials will stretch the ingenuity of synthetic chemists. The theory community must rise to the challenge of describing redox-mediated transport using first-principles, parameter free approaches. These advances will enable a new generation of devices that span the silicon (electronic) and carbon (bio-organic) worlds.

Despite the plethora of attractive material parameters of the III-nitride materials there are several issues that significantly limit the efficiency of devices and range of possible applications. In this study, we use first-principles electronic structure calculations to explore several of these properties relevant to understanding growth, processing, and device design.

Arguably the most detrimental issue in this material system is the lack of widely available, cost-effective substrates for the growth of films and devices. Heteroepitaxy, as well as the lattice mismatch between the layers of different III-nitride alloys in heterostructures, results in residual stresses in films and devices. Such stress will alter the electronic structure of the materials, so it is necessary for device design to be able to quantify these effects. We explore the influence of strain on the effective mass of carriers in GaN and AlN, a parameter that is tied to the conductivity. In addition, films under tensile strain can crack if the strain energy is sufficient. We explore the propensity for AlN, GaN, and AlGaN to crack on different crystallographic planes.

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