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Ahmad Gromov
Ahmad Gromov

Search Results For F1 2020 ((TOP))

The 2020 FIA Formula One World Championship was the motor racing championship for Formula One cars which was the 71st running of the Formula One World Championship.[a] It marked the 70th anniversary of the first Formula One World Drivers' Championship.[1] The championship was recognised by the governing body of international motorsport, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Drivers and teams competed for the titles of World Drivers' Champion and World Constructors' Champion, respectively.

Search results for F1 2020

Twenty-two Grands Prix were originally scheduled for the 2020 World Championship.[2] However, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in numerous race cancellations and postponements. A rescheduled calendar consisted of seventeen Grands Prix, nine from the original 2020 calendar and eight other Grands Prix, while the other thirteen original 2020 races were cancelled. This also meant that the season started with two races in Austria, and later on in the season there were also two races at Silverstone Circuit along with two races at Bahrain International Circuit. Each race is the minimum number of laps that exceeds a total distance of 305 km (189.5 mi). Under the sporting regulations, a minimum of eight races must take place for the season to be considered a championship.[47][f]

Liberty Media initially expected that the 2020 calendar would consist of twenty-one Grands Prix and that any new races would come at the expense of existing events, but later negotiated an agreement with the teams to allow up to twenty-two Grands Prix. Several further changes were made between the 2019 and 2020 calendars, with the German Grand Prix discontinued and the Mexican Grand Prix planned to be rebranded as the Mexico City Grand Prix before it was cancelled.[70][71]

In early April, organisers of the Canadian Grand Prix announced the race's postponement.[58] Later in the month, the French Grand Prix organisers confirmed that the race would not be held in 2020,[59] and the managing director of Silverstone Circuit stated that should the British Grand Prix go ahead, it would be without spectators.[90] In May, organisers of the Hungarian Grand Prix announced that their race would use the same model.[91] The sport's plans to resume competition called for a ban on team motorhomes and a rigid testing regime to stop any outbreak of the virus.[92]

The Dutch Grand Prix was cancelled entirely in late May, with organisers of the event stating that they would prefer to host the revived race with spectators in attendance in 2021 rather than without spectators in 2020.[69] Formula One confirmed the cancellation of the Azerbaijan, Singapore and Japanese Grands Prix in June.[93] Organisers of the Azerbaijan and Singapore races cited the difficulty of assembling the infrastructure required for a street circuit as the reason for their cancellation, while the Japanese Grand Prix was cancelled because of the Japanese government's travel restrictions. In July the Brazilian, Canadian, Mexico City and United States Grands Prix were formally cancelled amidst rising virus cases and travel restrictions in the Americas.[94] However, organisers of the Brazilian Grand Prix disputed the claims of Formula One Management and were unhappy with their race being cancelled without further consultation.[95] In August the cancellation of the Chinese Grand Prix was announced,[96] followed, in October, by the cancellation of the inaugural Vietnamese Grand Prix.[65]

In March, teams agreed that the 2020 Championship could run into early 2021 to ensure the running of as many races as possible. Such a move would also ensure that eight Grands Prix could be held, over three different continents, thereby meeting the minimum number of races needed for the season to qualify as a World Championship.[102][103][104]

Ahead of the season opening Austrian Grand Prix, Red Bull launched a protest against the Mercedes F1 W11's dual axis steering, a system where the driver can adjust the toe of the car by pulling and pushing on the steering wheel. The system was found to be legal for 2020, but it would be banned by the FIA from 2021 onward.[120]

Points were awarded to the top ten classified drivers and the driver who set the fastest lap. The driver with the fastest lap had to be within the top 10 to receive the point. In the case of a tie on points a countback system was used where the driver with the best results is ranked higher, if the best result was identical then the next best result was considered. The points were awarded for every race using the following system:[152]

We call this family of browser modifiers Adrozek. If not detected and blocked, Adrozek adds browser extensions, modifies a specific DLL per target browser, and changes browser settings to insert additional, unauthorized ads into web pages, often on top of legitimate ads from search engines. The intended effect is for users, searching for certain keywords, to inadvertently click on these malware-inserted ads, which lead to affiliated pages. The attackers earn through affiliate advertising programs, which pay by amount of traffic referred to sponsored affiliated pages.

Such a sustained, far-reaching campaign requires an expansive, dynamic attacker infrastructure. We tracked 159 unique domains, each hosting an average of 17,300 unique URLs, which in turn host more than 15,300 unique, polymorphic malware samples on average. In total, from May to September 2020, we recorded hundreds of thousands of encounters of the Adrozek malware across the globe, with heavy concentration in Europe and in South Asia and Southeast Asia. As this campaign is ongoing, this infrastructure is bound to expand even further.

The Adrozek malware is installed on devices through drive-by download. In our tracking of the Adrozek campaign from May to September 2020, we saw 159 unique domains used to distribute hundreds of thousands of unique malware samples. Attackers relied heavily on polymorphism, which allows attackers to churn huge volumes of samples as well as to evade detection.

This technique impacts not only Microsoft Edge but other Chromium-based browsers. These browsers store user settings and preferences, such as home page and default search engine, in the Preferences file. For each of the four target browsers, it modifies the relevant DLL:

After tampering with multiple browser components and settings, the malware gains the capability to inject ads on search results on affected browsers. The injection of ads is performed by malicious scripts downloaded from remote servers.

Depending on the search keyword, scripts add related ads at the top of legitimate ads and search results. The number of ads inserted and the sites they point to vary. And while we have not seen these ads point to malware-hosting and other malicious sites, the attackers can presumably make that change anytime. The Adrozek attackers, however, operate the way other browser modifiers do, which is to earn through affiliate ad programs, which pay for referral traffic to certain websites.

We identified large discrepancies in how different search engines disseminate information about the COVID-19 pandemic. Some differences in the results are expected given that search engines personalize their services (Hannak et al., 2013), but our study highlights that even non-personalized search results differ substantially. For example, we found that some search algorithms potentially prioritize misleading sources of information, such as alternative media and social media content in the case of Yandex, while others prioritize authoritative sources (e.g., government-related pages), such as in the case of Google.

We found large discrepancies in the search results (N=50) between identical agents using different search engines (Figure 1). Despite the use of the same search queries, all the metrics showed less than 25% similarity in search results between the engines, except DuckDuckGo and Yahoo, which shared almost 50% of their results. In many cases, we observed almost no overlap in the search results (e.g., between Google and DuckDuckGo), thus indicating that users receive completely different selections of information sources. While differences in source selection are not necessarily a negative aspect, the complete lack of common resources between the search engines can result in substantial information discrepancies among their users, which is troubling during an emergency. Furthermore, as Finding 3 shows, search engines prioritize not just different sources of the same type (e.g., various legacy media outlets) but different types of sources, which has direct implications for the quality of information that the engines provide.

The Jaccard index (JI), a metric that measures the share of common results between different agents, showed that for most engines, the source overlap occurred in the long tail of results, that is, those beyond the top 10 results. In the top 10 results, the overlap was higher only for the Yahoo-Baidu pair; the rest of the results comprised largely different sources. These observations were supported by the Ranked Biased Overlap (RBO), a metric that considers the ranking of search results. The parameter p determines how important the top results are: p 0.8 gives more weight to the few top results, whereas p 0.95 distributes the weight more equally between the top 30 results. Our RBO values suggested that the ranking of the long-tail results was usually more consistent between the search engines than the ranking of the top search results.

We observed substantial differences in the search results received by the identical agents using the same search engine and browser (Figure 2). For some search engines, such as Yahoo and Baidu, we found substantial consistency in the composition of the general and top 10 results (as indicated by the JI values). However, as indicated by their RBO values, the ranking of these results was inconsistent. By contrast, on Google and, to a certain degree, Bing, the top 10 results were consistent, whereas the rest of the results were less congruent. Finally, in the case of agents using DuckDuckGo in Chrome, the overall selection of the results was consistent, but their rankings varied substantially. 041b061a72

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