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Audio Comparer V1.7 \/\/TOP\\\\


Audio Comparer V1.7 \/\/TOP\\\\

One must be very comfortable perambulating interior space to be an audio wire designer. You spend your time juggling a limited number of variables in quest of the happy permutation that will result in a leg up over the competition. And contemplation only takes you so far. Prototypes must be built. Odds are high these will wind up in the pile over in that dark corner.

My secret weapon is my wife, Lynn, who provides invaluable musical insight. With decades of training as an oboist, and past President of a community orchestra, she knows what sounds natural and what doesn't. Many are the times she's pulled me back from the brink after a multi-day audio binge.

To first assess the effect of repeated exposure to a visual stimulus over the course of conditioning, we examined population responses to Vc, which was never paired with an auditory cue or reinforced, and found a general decrease in responsiveness across days (Extended Data Fig. 1b). To test whether experience with audio-visual sequential pairings affected whether V1 responded differently to a visual stimulus, we first compared the average population responses to the auditory cue and visual stimulus pair that was followed by a reward (AaVa) to that of the same visual stimulus (Va) presented alone. We found that, on day 1 of conditioning, the two visual responses were similar (Fig. 1c). Analogous to Vc, over the course of conditioning, the visual responses to both AaVa and Va decreased (Extended Data Fig. 1c). Interestingly, however, we found that the auditory cue preceding the paired visual stimulus resulted in an additional suppression of the visual response that increased with experience (Fig. 1c,d and Extended Data Fig. 1c). Furthermore, this suppression was most prominent for the auditory and visual stimuli followed by a water reward. For the audio-visual stimuli followed by an air puff (AbVb), we also observed a suppression of the visual response after the auditory cue; however, this suppression developed already on day 1 and was weaker and more variable than in the rewarded condition (Extended Data Fig. 1d,f). Additionally, the auditory cue itself resulted in a slight increase in V1 activity initially and a slight decrease in activity later in conditioning (Extended Data Fig. 1e). In mice that underwent the same pairing paradigm without any reinforcements, visual responses were smaller on average (Extended Data Fig. 1g), and the auditory cue did not result in a consistent suppression of the visual response (Extended Data Fig. 1g,i). Similar to reinforced conditioning, the auditory cue itself initially resulted in a slight increase in activity, but, unlike reinforced conditioning, this response did not change over time (Extended Data Fig. 1h). To investigate the mechanism of auditory-cue-driven suppression of visual responses, we focused subsequent analyses on the stimuli that were reinforced with a water reward. In addition to the experience-dependent auditory-cue-driven suppression, we also found that the visual responses to AaVa and Va de-correlated with experience (Extended Data Fig. 2a). Thus, experience with sequential audio-visual pairings can change the way V1 represents visual stimuli depending on the behavioral relevance of the stimuli.

Recording the activity of AuC axons in V1, we found that, early in conditioning, these carried both an auditory response and a visual response (Fig. 2c). Interestingly, the visual responses were larger than the auditory responses and, differently from responses in V1, increased slightly over the course of conditioning (Fig. 2c and Extended Data Fig. 4c,d). Conversely, the auditory responses in AuC axons, like the visual responses in V1, decreased across conditioning days (Fig. 2c and Extended Data Fig. 4e). Intrigued by the strength of the visual responses, we mapped the responses as a function of retinotopic location of the visual stimulus and found that they had receptive fields that mat

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